The definition of dyslexia
Dyslexia is one of the most well-known DYS disorders today. This disorder affects about 10% of the world's population and 2 to 3 children per class are affected. Despite the fact that dyslexia is very common, teachers still feel helpless in front of the number of dyslexic students and the lack of means to help them.
What is dyslexia?
The definition of dyslexia according to the WHO (World Health Organization) is as follows: “Dyslexia is a specific reading disorder. It is a persistent disorder in the acquisition of written language characterized by great difficulties in the acquisition and automation of the mechanisms necessary for the mastery of writing such as reading, writing, or spelling.”
To put it in a simple way, we can say that the definition of dyslexia is a difficulty or deficit in reading. People with dyslexia usually have difficulty reading fluently. They often read slowly and make mistakes when reading. This can have an impact on their ability to understand what they read. However, when other people read to them, they often have no problem understanding the text.
Dyslexia can also cause difficulties in other activities. These include:
- reading comprehension
Studies have also shown that dyslexia is linked to a vision problem. The letters that a person with dyslexia sees would be inverted or the handwriting may be completely upside down.
It is important to know that dyslexia is long-lasting, not chronic. It is in fact related to brain function, so it is irreversible. There is no miracle cure. Therefore, patients with dyslexia keep this disorder throughout their lives and learn to live with it.
It is true that one is "born dyslexic and dies dyslexic" but it is not inevitable. You can live with it and do the same things as a non-dyslexic person, and even do it better!
We often hear that dyslexic people are lazy and stupid, but these ideas are totally false. Modern neuropsychology has proven that this particularity, or disorder, is in most cases compensated by great abilities and remarkable talents in other fields.
Dyslexia is therefore in no way related to intelligence. In fact, we can even notice that there is a higher rate of dyslexia in gifted children.
It is not an obstacle to success but rather a handicap that one learns to master. With the help of good rehabilitation and learning methods, the future of a dyslexic child is indeed full of surprises.
Who is most affected by dyslexia?
Dyslexia occurs in children of all intelligence levels. It used to be thought that it affected boys more than girls, but research has shown that there is no gender difference.
This myth may be explained by the fact that boys tend to be more vocal and loud about their difficulties while girls tend to hide them.
It is important to know that dyslexia is present all over the world. It knows no cultural, linguistic or socio-economic boundaries.
Also, several studies suggest that dyslexia is hereditary. It is a neurobiological condition with a genetic origin. This means that it can be present in other family members, often in the parents. Indeed, it is very common for a dyslexic child to have a dyslexic mother or father.
The different types of dyslexia:
There are several types of dyslexia. The learning disability varies from one individual to another and people may have symptoms of several types or have the same type of dyslexia with different symptoms.
This is the most common dyslexia in children. It is characterized by a difficulty in putting words together and pronouncing them. Children with this dyslexia have difficulty finding the letters, putting them in order, and making a sound.
For example, they may read saw as was, on as a no, mix up the letter p and the letter b, add letters and forget others...
This creates auditory and visual confusion for the child and can discourage him very quickly.
Surface dyslexia :
The child has difficulty recognizing irregular words. Since it is difficult to memorize these words, the child makes the mistake each time as if it were the first time he or she saw the word and therefore tries to decipher it syllable by syllable.
The child has both types to a different degree. He has difficulty deciphering letters and recognizing them visually.
Dyslexia causes lasting difficulties for the person with dyslexia, that’s why it is important to recognize the symptoms in order to act fast and get the appropriate help for your child.